Internal combustion engines and their classifications

Internal combustion engines produce useful mechanical energy by converting chemical energy into thermal energy. In an internal combustion engine, a combustion chamber is an integral component of the working fluid circuit.

Classifications of internal combustion engines

Internal combustion engines can be classified into a large number of types, based on several criteria, which are:

ACCORDING TO FUEL USED

  • Diesel engine: These engines make use of diesel as fuel. They are used in trucks, buses, cars etc.
  • Petrol engine: These engines use petrol as fuel. They are used in bikes, sports cars, luxury cars etc.
  • Gas engine: These use CNG and LPG as fuel. They are used in some light motor vehicles

BASED ON TYPE OF CYCLE

  • Otto cycle engine
  • Diesel cycle engine
  • Dual cycle engine

BASED ON NUMBER OF STROKES PER CYCLE

  • Two-stroke Engine e.g. motorcycles and lawnmowers
  • Four-stroke Engine e.g. cars and trucks

BASED ON NUMBER OF CYLINDERS

  • Single cylinder engine: Motorcycles and motor scooters
  • Multi-cylinder engine
  • Twin cylinder engine
  • Four cylinder engine
  • Six cylinder engine
  • Eight cylinder engine
  • Twelve cylinder engine
  • Sixteen cylinder engine

    internal combustion engine
    Internal combustion engines come in various classifications.

BASED ON TYPE OF IGNITION

  • Compressed ignition engine: Burning of fuel starts due to a rise in temperature during compression of air. This involves no spark plug.
  • Spark ignition engine: This engine involves a spark plug which generates a spark to ignite the fuel inside the cylinder

BASED ON TYPE OF LUBRICATION

  • Dry sump lubricated engine: Examples include race cars and aerobatic aircraft
  • Wet sump lubricated engine

BASED ON COOLING SYSTEM USED

  • Air-cooled engine
  • Water-cooled engine

BASED ON ARRANGEMENT OF VALVES

  • L-head engine
  • I-head engine
  • T-head engine
  • F-head engine

BASED ON POSITION OF CYLINDERS

  • Radial engine
  • V engine
  • W engine
  • Horizontal engine
  • Vertical engine
  • Inline engine
  • Opposed Piston engine
  • Opposed Cylinder engine

BASED ON PRESSURE BOOST GIVEN TO THE INLET OR AIR-FUEL MIXTURE

  • Naturally aspired engine
  • Supercharged engine
  • Turbocharged engine
  • Crankcase compressed engine

BASED ON APPLICATION

  • Automobile engine
  • Aircraft engine
  • Locomotive engine
  • Marine engine
  • Stationary engine

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